قرن 19

(تم التحويل من القرن 19)
الألفية: الألفية 2
القرون:
العقود: عقد 1800 عقد 1810 عقد 1820 عقد 1830 عقد 1840
عقد 1850 عقد 1860 عقد 1870 عقد 1880 عقد 1890
التصنيفات: المواليدالوفيات
التأسيساتالانحلالات
Antoine-Jean Gros, استسلام مدريد، 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War, 1810

The 19th century (January 1, 1801 – December 31, 1900) was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, First and Second French, Chinese,[1] Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of الامبراطورية البريطانية, the Russian Empire, الولايات المتحدة, the German Empire, the Second French Colonial Empire and the Empire of Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815.

After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. نمت الامبراطورية البريطانية بسرعة في النصف الأول من القرن، especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. وبنهاية القرن، سيطرت الامبراطورية البريطانية على خمس أراضي العالم وربع سكانه. During the post Napoleonic era it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which helped trade. The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.[2] The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan.[3] The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.[4] Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War.

Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million.[5] The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fueling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city وعاصمة الامبراطورية البريطانية. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were discovered during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the preeminent reform movement in Europe.[6]

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river (في ما هو اليوم تنزانيا وموزمبيق)، القرن 19

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade.[7] The first empire to abolish slavery was the Portuguese Empire, followed by Britain, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia.

The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States والامبراطورية البريطانية respectively by the end of the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America.[8]

The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world.

الثورة الصناعية تغير للأبد الاقتصاد في جميع أرجاء العالم.

وقد شهد القرن انهيار الاحتلال العثماني للبلقان مما أدى إلى خلق صربيا، بلغاريا، الجبل الأسود ورومانيا كنتيجة للحرب التركية الروسية الثانية، التي هي نفسها نشبت في أعقاب حرب القرم الكبيرة.

العصور

خريطة العالم من 1897. الامبراطورية البريطانية (مبينة باللون الوردي) كانت القوة العظمى في القرن التاسع عشر.

أحداث

أطلس تاريخ القرن التاسع عشر. تأليف أحمد نجيب ومحمد مأمون.
Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. The war swings decisively against the French Empire
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.

1800s

انظر أيضاً: Timeline of the Napoleonic era
The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology

1810s

1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.

1820s

1816: Shaka rises to power over the مملكة الزولو. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane (“Crushing”) that depopulated large areas of southern Africa

1830s

The Great Exhibition in London. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.

1840s

1850s

The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal

1860s

Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century.[13]
David Livingstone, Scottish explorer and missionary in Africa
From 1865-1870 Paraguay lost more than half of its population in the Paraguayan War against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.
Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed.

1870s

1880s

First bus in history: a Benz truck modified by Netphener company (1895)
Miners and prospectors ascend the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush
Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c.1890

1890s

1900

لمعلومات عن later events، انظر Timeline of modern history.

أشخاص بارزون

Abraham Lincoln in 1863, 16th President of The United States, presided during the American Civil War, assassinated in April 1865
Tsar Alexander II, also known as Alexander the Liberator, was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881

الاستعراض والمسرح

الرياضة

John L Sullivan in his prime, c.1882.

الأعمال

المقالة الرئيسية: Robber baron (industrialist) and business magnate

شخصيات شهيرة ومشينة

Jesse and Frank James, 1872
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill Cody, Montreal, Quebec, 1885

الأنثروپولوجيا، الآثار والدارسون

هاينريش شليمان، عالم آثار

الصحفيون والإرساليون والمستكشفون

التصوير الفوتوغرافي

Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c.1875

الفنانون البصريون والرسامون والمثالون

المقالة الرئيسية: تاريخ الرسم, الرسم الغربي, and Ukiyo-e
Jan Matejko, Self-portrait, 1892
Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait, 1889

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included:

الموسيقى

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Niccolo Paganini, (c.1819), charcoal drawing

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes:

الأدب

المقالة الرئيسية: Romantic poetry and 19th century in literature

On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain.

French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. الحداثة بدأت.

The Goncourts and Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On February 21, 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto.

There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire. Some other important writers of note included:

العلوم

Mme. Marie Curie, c.1898

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell.[17] Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Dmitri Mendeleev created the first periodic table of elements. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. But the most important step in science at this time was the ideas formulated by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about. The list of important 19th century scientists includes:

الفلسفة والدين

The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:

السياسة والعسكرية

Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor
The last Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, c. 1867
The allies: Sultan of the Ottoman Empire; Abdulmecid I, Queen of United Kingdom, Victoria and President of France, Napoleon III.

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ See Qing Dynasty; By 1900, mass civil disorder had begun and continuously grown till their ultimate downfall in 1911.
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. ^ "The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18. Retrieved 2012-10-31. 
  4. ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England
  5. ^ "Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. 
  6. ^ Liberalism in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  7. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. BBC.
  8. ^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News. December 1996.
  9. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Herman Willem Daendels [1] Access date 29 March 2009
  10. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. 
  11. ^ Spring Hermann (1997) "Geronimo: Apache freedom fighter". Enslow Publishers. p.26 ISBN 0-89490-864-2
  12. ^ "Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8
  13. ^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009. 
  14. ^ Hamdani, Sylviana (3 February 2010). "Taking a Train Trip Down Memory Lane in Indonesia". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  15. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Vickers (2005), page xii
  16. ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203
  17. ^ "William Whewell". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
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ع1800 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809
ع1810 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819
ع1820 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829
ع1830 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839
ع1840 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849
ع1850 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859
ع1860 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869
ع1870 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879
ع1880 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889
ع1890 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899
ع1900 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909