14 نوفمبر

أكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر
سبت أحد إثنين ثلاثاء أربعاء خميس جمعة
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British anatomist and physiologist who described blood coagulation and isolated a key protein in the coagulation process, fibrinogen, which he called coagulable lymph. He also investigated the structure of the lymphatic system and described red blood cells.

  • 1765 - روبرت فلتون، مهندس ومخترع أمريكي. American inventor, engineer and artist who brought steamboating from the experimental stage to commercial success. He did not invent the steamboat, which had been built in the early 1700's, but rather applied his engineering skills to their design. He changed the proportions, arrangements, and velocities of already proposed ideas. In 1807, work was completed on the Clermont, the first steamboat that was truly successful, and the culmination of many years of work. It's maiden voyage was on 17 Aug from New York City to Albany, a distance of 150 miles completed in 32 hours. A mechanical genius with many talents, he also designed a system of inland waterways, a submarine (Nautilus, 1801), and a steam warship. (ت. 1815)
  • 1771 - Marie François Xavier Bichat, French anatomist and physiologist Born 14 Nov 1771; died 22 Jul 1802 at age 30. quotes button quotes

Marie François Xavier Bichat was a French physician who was the first to investigate the body's organs as a complex of simpler structures. He made hundreds of post-mortem examinations, with an unaided eye, noting the effect of disease on the organs. Even before knowledge of the cell as the functional unit of living things, he was among the first to visualize the organs of the body as being formed through the differentiation of simple, functional units. For these, typically thin layers that make up the organs, he coined the term "tissues" and identified 21 types in his book General Anatomy (1800). He died young, at age 30, after fainting and falling down the steps in his laboratory.« (ت. 1802)

  • 1776 - Henri Dutrochet, فسيولوجي فرنسي. Rene-Joachim-Henri Dutrochet was a French physiologist who discovered and coined the name for (1863) osmosis, the process in which a solvent passes through a semipermeable membrane into a region of greater solute concentration, thus equalizing concentrations on either side of the membrane. He also studied development of eggs of birds. He was the first to recognize that the take-up of carbon dioxide by plant cells depends on their green pigment. The light sensitivity, and geotropism of plants also drew his interest. He was one of the most successful champions, in animal as well as vegetable physiology, of the modern ideas which displaced the old vitalistic school of thought after 1820.« (ت. 1847)
  • 1797 - Charles Lyell، جيولوجي بريطاني. Born 14 Nov 1797; died 22 Feb 1875 at age 77. quotes button quotes

Charles Lyell (Baronet) was a Scottish geologist who promoted a theory of gradualism, by which all features of the Earth's surface are produced by physical, chemical, and biological processes through long periods of geological time. This extended the ideas of uniformitarianism as earlier stated by James Hutton. Lyell rejected the idea of Abraham Werner that a single great historic deluge had been responsible for producing the Earth's present surface topology. The concept of uniformitarianism also opposed the theory of catastrophism whereby zoologists such as Georges Cuvier believed it was by dramatic changes that flora and fauna appeared in their present form. Instead, Lyell maintained that changes were gradual, shaped by forces over unlimited time, in a similar way throughout, and were still operating in the present time.« (ت. 1875)

French chemist who developed organic chemistry as a distinct science. For a while, he assisted Jean Dumas, and extended his work, understanding organic compounds as derivatives of hydrocarbon molecules. In crystallography he was influenced by René-Just Haüy. Laurent recognised that carbon atoms formed bonds based on a pyramid structure. Furthermore, against the opinion of many peers, he rejected the idea held by Jöns Berzelius that even organic molecules were formed from positively and negatively charged entities. Laurent showed (1836) that a supposedly positive-charge hydrogen atom could be replaced by a supposedly negative-charge chlorine atom. He recognised families of organic compounds with characteristic groups. He died in middle age from tuberculosis.«

Canadian physiologist and physician who, assisted by Charles H. Best, was the first to extract (1921) the hormone insulin from the pancreas. Injections of insulin proved to be the first effective treatment for diabetes, a disease in which glucose accumulates in abnormally high quantities in the blood. Banting was awarded a share of the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for this achievement.

Malcom Purcell McLean was an American businessman and inventor who from 1956 developed the metal shipping container which is now used to transport goods on ships, trains and motor freight. The standardized containers are strong enough to stack several layers deep on ships, and greatly simplify handling of cargo by cranes, with great cost savings over the labour of loading and unloading goods in larger numbers of smaller units of crates and bags. From driving a single truck hauling materials in his early years, he founded the McLean Trucking Co., which became the second-largest in the U.S. When he realized that a truck and its cargo body could be separated, he expanded into secure handling of containers that could be stacked for bulk transport.« book icon The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy

  • 1922 - بطرس بطرس غالي، أمين عام الأمم المتحدة.
  • 1925 - Zhores Aleksandrovich Medvedev is a Soviet biologist and historian who exposed the nuclear disaster which occurred in the Urals in the 1950s. For his dissident activities in his homeland, he became one of the earliest to be detained in a mental institution as the way Soviet officials attempted to stifle opposition. After he accepted a one-year invitation from the National Institute for Medical Research to work in London, in 1973, within six months of his arrival, he was forced into exile by the Soviet Union which revoked his passport. He became a senior research scientist for the NIMR . His books include The Rise and Fall of T.D. Lysenko (1969), The Medvedev Papers (1971), and Soviet Science (1978).
  • 1930 - إدوارد وايت، الثاني - Born 14 Nov 1930; died 27 Jan 1967 at age 36.

First U.S. astronaut to walk in space. With James A. McDivitt he manned the four-day orbital flight of Gemini 4, launched on 3 Jun 1965. During the third orbit White emerged from the spacecraft, floated in space for about 20 minutes, and became the first person to propel himself in space with a maneuvering unit. Two years later, White was one of the three-man crew of Apollo 1 who in 1967 were the first casualties of the U.S. space program, killed during a flight simulation (the others were Virgil I. Grissom and Roger B. Chaffee).


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