4 ديسمبر

نوفمبر ديسمبر يناير
سبت أحد إثنين ثلاثاء أربعاء خميس جمعة
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2017

أحداث

  • 1808 - The Napoleonic Wars in the Iberian Peninsula : The Spanish capital Madrid surrendered to the troops of Napoleon Bonaparte .
  • 1808 - Napoleon Bonaparte raises the Inquisition in Spain on by decree.
  • 1812 - براءة اختراع أمريكية لآلة جز الحشائش: the first U.S. patent for a horse-drawn mowing machine was given to Peter Gaillard of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It was granted before patents were numbered, and lost in the Patent Office fire (1836). Except for its entry in a summary list of patent dates, it remains unknown and likely unsuccessful. Other U.S. patents listed as for "cutting grain and grass" or "reaping grain" are listed for 17 May 1803, 28 Dec 1805 and 26 Feb 1811. Another patent for "mowing grass" was issued to Peter Baker on 19 Feb 1814. The next was to Jeremiah Bailey (13 Feb 1822), a rotary mowing machine which received much attention, both in the U.S. and in the British Mechanic's Magazine.
  • 1819 - العلامة المائية: a triple paper was patented in Britain by Sir William Congreve that could incorporate a colored watermark, visible when the paper was held up to the light, to make currency harder to counterfeit. His invention was to overlay a very thin couched sheet of white paper on each side of a layer of colored pulp containing a design, which would then be pressed together and dried. He made a proposal to the Commission of the Bank of England on 30 Oct 1818, but his process was not adopted due to resistance from the Portals firm which had manufactured the Bank of England's currency paper since 1725. Congreve is best known for his invention of military rockets, first used militarily, against the French, on 8 Oct 1806.
  • 1829 - In the face of fierce local opposition, الحاكم البريطاني Lord William Bentinck issues a regulation declaring that all who abet suttee in الهند are guilty of culpable homicide.
  • 1838 - in Mexico landed French troops and take the port of Veracruz .
  • 1858 - الإنجليز يخلعون بهادر شاه الثاني آخر حكام آل تيمور في الهند عن عرشه وينفونه خارج الهند.
  • 1859 - تأسيس مكتب الملوكية، وهي جامعة للعلوم الأدبية العصرية، في اسطنبول.
  • 1868 - in El Puerto de Santa Maria ( Cadiz province ), the Volunteers of Liberty started an insurrection led by the anarchist Salvochea Fermin .
  • 1875 - Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then Spain.
  • 1881 - The first edition of the لوس أنجلس تايمز is published.
  • 1893 - حرب ماتابله الأولى: دورية من 34 ضابط في شرطة جنوب أفريقيا البريطانية يـُقتـَلون في قتال مع ما يُقدر بنحو 3,000 شخص من ندبله على نهر شانگاني في ماتابله‌لاند.
  • 1894 - The meteorologist Arthur Berson is at a scientific aviation with 9155 meters to a new world altitude record.
  • 1894 - براءة اختراع القلم الحبر: George Parker was issued a U.S. patent for a fountain pen design that became the Parker Pen Company's first major success. The Lucky Curve was designed to solve the problem that previous pens, while carried in a pocket, retained ink in the feed tube. Warmed by body temperature, the ink expanded forcing ink from the pen point into the cap and onto the barrel, causing soiled fingers on next use. The Lucky Curve design used capillary attraction to completely drain ink from the feed tube. Parker held several earlier fountain pen patents since his first on 10 Dec 1889. In Feb 1892, with partner W.E Palmer, he incorporated the Parker Pen Company to market his pens, and he continued to focus on making design improvements.
  • 1897 - معاهدة السلام تنهي الحرب التركية اليونانية. وبالرغم من النصر العثماني، فإن كريت تصبح محمية دولية. وكان على اليونان دفع تعويضات باهظة، لم تتمكن من دفعها مما دفعها إلى الإفلاس.
  • 1918 - الرئيس الأمريكي وودرو ويلسون يبحر إلى أوروبا لبدء محادثات السلام في قصر ڤرساي -مقر الحكم السابق للمملكة الفرنسية- بشأن الحرب العالمية الأولى، ليصبح أول رئيس أمريكي يزور اوروبا أثناء رئاسته.
  • 1923 - حظر تداول الشمبانزي: the Associated Press reported that the governor of French West Africa had banned the capture, keeping, sale or exportation of chimpanzees from that colony to protect the chimpanzees from further exploitation. Irresponsible hunters wanted skins for clothing or glands for human rejuvenation.. Permits, restricted in time and number, would be limited to scientific and medical investigators. The chimpanzees had to be netted or trapped without wounding them. As the animal closest to human physiology, they were still being used for such experiments as grafting, or tuberculosis research. Over three decades later, on 2 May 1955, French West Africa issued a 5-franc stamp showing a chimpanzee, titled “Protection de la Nature” as conservation continued.
  • 1938 - Implementation of the Sudeten Germans by-election after the annexation of the Sudetenland to the German Reich .
  • 1942 - الحرب العالمية الثانية: Carlson's patrol أثناء Guadalcanal Campaign ends.
  • 1943 - الحرب العالمية الثانية: في يوغوسلاڤيا، زعيم المقاومة، المارشال يوسيپ بروز تيتو يعلن، في المنفى، حكومة يوغوسلاڤية ديمقراطية مؤقتة.
  • 1943 - الحرب العالمية الثانية: الرئيس الأمريكي فرانكلن روزڤلت يغلق Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment في الولايات المتحدة.
  • 1943 - Leipzig experienced its heaviest bombing during the Second World War by British bombers.
  • 1944 - الغارة الجوية على هايلبرون، which are already some of the weaker attacks preceded destroyed, the entire historic center of the city . With more than 6,500 dead is one of the heaviest air raids of World War II .
  • 1945 - عمدة كولونيا المطرود، كونراد أدناور is the British military government allowed the previously forbidden by their political activity again.
  • 1945 - The French cabinet called on the cession of the Rhineland and the Ruhr for the consent of France to form a central German government.
  • 1945 - بأغلبية 65 ضد 7، مجلس الشيوخ الأمريكي يوافق على مشاركة الولايات المتحدة في الأمم المتحدة (the UN is established on October 24, 1945).
  • 1952 - الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة تنظر في علاقة تونس بفرنسا.
  • 1954 - محكمة الثورة بمصر، تحكم على ستة من قيادات الإخوان بالإعدام، وسبعة آخرين بالسجن المؤبد بعد محاولة اغتيال جمال عبد الناصر.
  • 1954 - أول برگر كنگ is opened in Miami, Florida, الولايات المتحدة
  • 1958 - Benin ruled as an autonomous republic from among the French colonies in Africa.
  • 1958 - With the 152 / I V1 stands in Dresden in Germany developed the first passenger jet aircraft from its maiden flight.
  • 1959 - As part of the Mercury program , NASA shoots the rhesus monkeys Sam with the mission Mercury-Little Joe 2 into space to test the functionality of the rescue system. The test to pass.
  • 1965 - In Manila, the Agreement establishing the be Asian Development Bank signed.
  • 1965 - Frank Borman and James A. Lovell start with Gemini 7 at their 14-day space flight.

مواليد

  • 1816 - بنجامن سيليمان، الأصغر، كيميائي أمريكي whose report on the potential uses of crude-oil products gave impetus to plans for drilling the first producing oil well, near Titusville, Pa. Silliman separated the crude oil into its component parts, or its fractions, and observed the characteristics of each fraction. He determined by use of a photometer that distilled petroleum burned much brighter than all but the most expensive and least efficient fuels. He also noted its potential use as a lubricant; he found it capable of withstanding extremely high and low temperatures and able to keep its form after long use. Silliman concluded petroleum was “a raw material from which...they may manufacture a very valuable product.” His report marked petroleum as the answer to the illumination fuel crisis. (ت. 14 يناير 1885)
  • 1858 - تشستر گرينوود، مخترع وصانع أمريكي لسدادات الأذن، which, while a teenager, he designed and patented (U.S. No.188,292 issued 13 Mar 1877). He had experienced very uncomfortable cold ears while skating in winter, and solved his problem with beaver fur pads on a wire frame. By his mid-twenties, he had a factory and 11 workers producing Greenwood Champion Ear Protectors in his hometown of Farmington producing 50,000 earmuffs yearly. Distribution grew to 400,000 pairs by the year he died. He patented many other inventions. In 1977, the Maine state legislature officially declared 21 Dec, the first day of winter, as the annual Chester Greenwood Day. His hometown celebrates with a parade in early December. (ت. 5 يوليو 1937)
  • 1877 - ستوارت كريدل، مزارع وعالم ثدييات ومهجن نباتات كندي إنجليزي المولد، who kept meticulous field notes of mammal (and bird) life. He carried out many breeding experiments with sunflowers, corn, and lilies and had a new variety of lily named after him. He was a charter member of the American Society of Mammalogists. Although he had no formal schooling, he was awarded an honorary D.Sc. at the first convocation of Brandon University in 1968. His older brother Norman Criddle was known as the "dean of entomology" in western Canada, and is recognized for his development of the "Criddle mixture" for grasshopper control and for his early application of biological observations to insect control. Stuart immigrated into Canada as a boy with his family in 1882. (ت. 23 أكتوبر 1971)
  • 1897 - روبرت ردفيلد، رائد علم الإنسان الحضري. From his studies of Mexican communities, Redfield developed a theory (1956) of a folk-urban continuum, to account for the differences between folk society and urban society. A folk society was small in size, isolated, homogeneous, preliterate with a social and cultural life linked to kinship and sacred beliefs. Urban society had opposite of all these features. He believed that any community had a place on this continuum from folk to urban. This scale implied that simpler or folk forms of society would evolve to complex social forms with time. Anthropologists now consider the way folk and urban societies are part of a larger social, political and economic environment, rather than considered as separate poles on a continuum. (ت. 16 أكتوبر 1958)
  • 1906 - روبرت والاس ولكنز، فيزيائي أمريكي who made many contributions in the research of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. He is best known for his introduction into the U.S. of a drug derived from the root of an Indian shrub. It had been used in India in the treatment of high blood pressure. In 1950, Wilkins first used it in the U.S. for the same purpose. By 1952, he reported also on its sedative and traquilizing effects. It was named as reserpine, and was the first of the tranquilizers. This improved upon earlier sedatives, like barbiturates, in that tranquilizers produce a calming effect without diminishing alertness or bringing on sleep. He was the president of the American Heart Association in 1957 and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in the same year.
  • 1908 - ألفرد هرشي، عالم بكتريا أمريكي، حاصل على جائزة نوبل (ت. 1997)
  • 1910 - R. Venkataraman، رئيس الهند (ت. 2009)
  • 1914 - Rudolf Hausner, Austrian painter and sculptor (ت. 1995)
  • 1919 - I. K. Gujral, Indian politician, 12th Prime Minister of India (ت. 2012)
  • 1920 - Neville Thiele, Australian engineer (ت. 2012)
  • 1923 - تشارلز كيتنگ، American attorney and businessman
  • 1924 - فرانك پرس، عالم جيوفيزياء أمريكي known for his investigations of the structure of the Earth's crust and mantle and the mechanics of earthquakes. Press pioneered the use of seismic waves to explore subsurface geological structures and for his pioneering use of waves to explore Earth's deep interior. In 1950, with William Maurice Ewing, a major innovator in modern geology at Columbia University, he invented an improved seismograph,and they published a landmark paper recognized as beginning a new era in structural seismology. While at Caltech (1955-65) and later MIT, Press became known in public policy circles for his work on seismic detection of underground nuclear tests and for advocacating a national program for earthquake prediction capabilities.
  • 1957 - إريك ريموند، مبرمج ومؤلف أمريكي
  • 1972 - نيكي تايلر، عارضة أزياء وممثلة إغراء أمريكية
  • 1973 - تايرا بانكس، عارضة أزياء وممثلة أمريكية
  • 1981 - عبد الرحمن الموسى ، لاعب كرة قدم كويتي ، يلعب في نادي القادسية الكويتي.

وفيات

  • 749 - القديس يوحنا الدمشقي
  • 765 - جعفر الصادق، أحد أئمة الشيعة (و. 702)
  • 771 - كارلومان، ملك الفرنجة (و. 751)
  • 880 - سـِيْ‌وا، امبراطور اليابان رقم 56.
  • 1049 - الحافظ أبي عبدالله محمد بن علي بن عبدالله بن محمد الصوري، أحد علماء الحديث في القرن الخامس الهجري
  • 1123 - عمر الخيام، الفيلسوف وعالم الفلك والرياضيات الفارسي. (و. 1048)
  • 1214 - وليام الأول من اسكتلندة (a.k.a. William the Lion; b. abt.1143)
  • 1270 - Theobald V of Champagne, King of Navarre
  • 1576 - رتيكوس، عالم رياضيات وفلك نمساوي، كان ضمن أول من who was among the first to adopt and spread the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus. He was first taught by his father, a physician, who was beheaded for sorcery (1528) while Rheticus was still a teenager. He is best known as the first disciple of Copernicus. In 1540, Rheticus published the first account of the heliocentric hypothesis which had been elaborated by Copernicus, entitled Narratio prima, which was explicitly authorised by Copernicus, who also asked for his friend's aid in editing the edition of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (“On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres”). Rheticus was the first mathematician to regard the trigonometric functions in terms of angles rather than arcs of a circle. (و. 1514)
  • 1642 - أرمان جان دو پلسي, كاردينال ريشليو، رجل دولة فرنسي (و. 1585)
  • 1679 - توماس هوبز، فيلسوف بريطاني (و. 1588)
  • 1680 - توماس برتولين، عالم فيزياء ورياضيات ولاهوت دنماركي، who was first to describe fully the entire human lymphatic system (1652) and an early defender of Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood. He joined the mathematical faculty (1647-49), then was anatomy professor (1649-61) at the University of Copenhagen. He published many works on anatomy, physiology and medicine, (1645-74) and a general work on pharmacology (1658). In 1654, Bartholin and his university's medical faculty published advice on how people could care for themselves during the plague. After an estate Bartholin bought (1663) was destroyed by fire in 1670, King Christian V paid him an annual salary as his personal physician, although his services were rarely needed. (و. 1616)
  • 1696 - Empress Meishō, Japan (و. 1624)
  • 1732 - جون گاي، English poet and dramatist (و. 1685)
  • 1798 - لويجي گالڤاني، فيزيائي إيطالي (و. 1737)
  • 1828 - Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (و. 1770)
  • 1850 - وليام سترجن، فيزيائي ومخترع إنگليزي، who devised the first electromagnet capable of supporting more than its own weight (1825). The 7-oz (200-g) magnet supported 9-lb (4-kg) of iron with a single cell's current. He built an electric motor (1832) and invented the commutator, now part of most modern electric motors. In 1836, he invented the first suspended coil galvanometer, a device for measuring current. Sturgeon also worked on improving the voltaic battery, developing a theory of thermoelectricity, and even atmospheric charge conditions. From 500 kite flights made in calm weather, he found the atmosphere is consistently charged positively with respect to the Earth, and increasingly so at increased height. (و. 22 مايو 1783)
  • 1864 - جون فاولر، مهندس إنگليزي، who helped to develop the steam-hauled plough. He began his career in the grain trade but later trained as an engineer. In 1850 he joined Albert Fry in Bristol to found a works to produce steam-hauled implements. During a business trip to Ireland, he witnessed the famine which followed the failure of two years of potato crops. This aroused his Quaker conscience and changed his life. He returned to England determined to mechanise land drainage by the use of steam. The result was his Mole Drainage Plough shown at the great exhibition of 1851, and built for him by Ransomes. In 1858 Fowler was awarded a £500 prize for his balance plough. He died of tetanus following an injury received after being thrown by a horse. (و. 11 يوليو 1826)
  • 1893 - جون تيندال، فيزيائي أيرلندي، who demonstrated why the sky is blue. He became known to the scientific world in 1848 as the author of a substantial work on Crystals. In 1856 he traveled with Professor Huxley to Switzerland, after which he co-authored On the Structure and Motion of Glaciers. He also published Heat as a Mode of Motion (1863), On Radiation (1865), followed by Sound, then in 1870 he published Light. Included in these works were studies of acoustic properties of the atmosphere and the blue colour of the sky, which he suggested was due to the scattering of light by small particles of water. His initial scientific reputation was based on a study of diamagnetism. He carried out research on radiant heat, studied spontaneous generation and the germ theory of disease, glacier motion, sound, the diffusion of light in the atmosphere and a host of related topics. He showed that ozone was an oxygen cluster rather than a hydrogen compound, and invented the firemans respirator and made other less well-known inventions including better fog-horns. One of his most important inventions, the light pipe, has led to the development of fibre optics. The modern light instrument is known as the gastroscope, which enables internal observations of a patient's stomach without surgery. Tyndall was a very popular lecturer. (و. 1820)
  • 1933 - إميل مايرسون، كيميائي وفيلسوف بولندي-فرنسي درس النظريات العلمية القديمة والحديثة، to determine the nature of scientific thought. He identified two principles of psychological reasoning by which the scientist understands phenomena: realism and causalism. Applying the first principle, a scientist's mind expects that within diverse physical behaviours, a certain degree of regularity is held to - a lawfulness - such as established by laws of conservation of energy, or the law of inertia. The second principle describes how the scientist seeks to describe a change by the identification of antecedent and consequent of the change. Meyerson's ideas were popular among scientific theorists in the 1930s. (و. 12 فبراير 1859)
  • 1934 - هوراس لام، عالم رياضيات إنگليزي، who contributed to the field of mathematical physics. Topics he worked on include wave propagation, electrical induction, earthquakes, and the theory of tides. He wrote important papers on the oscillations of a viscous spheroid, the vibrations of elastic spheres, waves in elastic solids, electric waves and the absorption of light. In a famous paper in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society he showed how Rayleigh's results on the vibrations of thin plates fitted with the general equations of the theory. Another paper reported on his study of the propagation of waves on the surface of an elastic solid where he tried to understand the way that earthquake tremors are transmitted around the surface of the Earth. (و. 27 نوفمبر 1849)
  • 1935 - Charles Richet, French physiologist, Nobel laureate (و. 1850)
  • 1945 - توماس هنت مورگان، عالم وراثة أمريكي، حاصل على جائزة نوبل (و. 1866)
  • 1948 - Frank Benford, American electrical engineer and physicist (و. 1883)
  • 1955 - József Galamb, Hungarian mechanical engineer (و. 1881)
  • 1955 - گلن مارتن، طيار ومخترع أمريكي. whose bombers and flying boats played important roles in WW II. His first planes were built in collaboration with mechanics from his auto shop, working in a disused church building that Martin rented. In 1909, Martin made his first successful flight; by 1911 he numbered among the most famous of the “pioneer birdmen.” He incorporated the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company in 1912 as a manufacturer, and remained for forty years the senior aircraft manufacturer in the U.S. The vast majority of the more than 11,000 planes built by the company before it ceased producing aircraft in 1960, Martin Bombers pioneered the doctrine of airpower in the 1920's to 1930's and served in all theaters in World War II. (و. 17 يناير 1886)
  • 1978 - صاموِل ابراهام گودسميت، فيزيائي أمريكي هولندي المولد، who, with George E. Uhlenbeck, a fellow graduate student at the University of Leiden, Neth., formulated (1925) the concept of electron spin. It led to recognition that spin was a property of protons, neutrons, and most elementary particles and to a fundamental change in the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics. Goudsmit also made the first measurement of nuclear spin and its Zeeman effect with Ernst Back (1926-27), developed a theory of hyperfine structure of spectral lines, made the first spectroscopic determination of nuclear magnetic moments (1931-33), contributed to the theory of complex atoms and the theory of multiple scattering of electrons, and invented the magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer (1948). (و. 11 يوليو 1902)
  • 1984 - جون روك، طبيب ولادة وأمراض نساء وخبير خصوبة أمريكي، وكان أول من خصّب بويضة بشرية في المعمل، who co-developed the birth control pill. On 6 Feb 1944, with Harvard scientist Miriam F. Menkin, Rock produced the first laboratory-fertilized, two-cell human egg in a test-tube. He is also credited with the first recorded recovery of human embryos 2-17 days after fertilization, as well as establishing the fact that ovulation occurs fourteen days before menstruation. Through collaborative activities of philanthropist Catherine Dexter McCormick, researcher and biologist Gregory Pinkus, Rock, and other scientists, the birth control pill was developed, and it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (1957) for marketing to “treat gynecologic disorders.” Rock was best known for this contribution to the development and government approval of the oral contraceptive, and also popularizing and selling it to a skeptical world. (و. 24 مارس 1890)
  • 1987 - وليام هنري برت، عالم حيوان وثدييات أمريكي، درس مختلف نواحي علم الثدييات، بما فيه home range, territoriality, morphology, behavior, and evolution. The regions he studied in particular include Michigan (1940-48), the Great Lakes (1956), Sonora (1938-41) and El Salvador (1961). He also examined the effects of the new Mexican volcano Paricutin on the vertebrates in its vicinity (1961). His interest in mammals developed early, from observing activities of prairie dogs on the family farm. As early as 1927, he wrote about A Simple Live Trap for Small Mammals in early article, in the Journal of Mammalogy. This led to development of the live trap, now widely used by mammalogists worldwide. Of his several books, his book, Field Guide to the Mammals (first published 1952), has popularized mammal observation by the layman. (و. 22 يناير 1903)