قائمة العائلات اللغوية

(تم التحويل من عائلات لغوية)

العائلات اللغوية الرئيسية

حسب عدد المتكلمين أساساً بها

أمثلة للعائلات اللغوية (انظر image summary)

This is a list of the top ten families with wide recognition as phylogenetic units, in terms of numbers of native speakers, listed with their core geographic areals.

  1. Indo-European languages (Europe, Southwest to South Asia)
  2. Sino-Tibetan languages (East Asia)
  3. Niger-Congo languages (Sub-Saharan Africa)
  4. Afro-Asiatic languages (North Africa to Horn of Africa, Southwest Asia)
  5. Austronesian languages (Oceania, Madagascar)
  6. Dravidian languages (South Asia)
  7. Altaic languages (Asia, phylogenetic unity uncertain)
  8. Austro-Asiatic languages (Southeast Asia)
  9. Tai-Kadai languages (Southeast Asia)
  10. Uralic languages (Northern Asia to Northern Europe)

If the Altaic grouping is rejected, Turkic and Japonic should be counted as major language families instead. The families listed above account for more than 99% of total world population.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Phyla with wide geographical distributions historically but comparatively few contemporary speakers include Eskimo-Aleut, Na-Dené, Algic and Nilo-Saharan.

حسب عدد تنوعاتها (فروعها)

According to the numbers in Ethnologue[1], the largest language families in terms of number of languages are:

  1. Niger-Congo (1,514 languages)
  2. Austronesian (1,268 languages)
  3. Trans-New Guinea (564 languages) (validity disputed)
  4. Indo-European (449 languages)
  5. Sino-Tibetan (403 languages)
  6. Afro-Asiatic (375 languages)
  7. Nilo-Saharan (204 languages)
  8. Pama-Nyungan (178 languages) (validity disputed)
  9. Oto-Manguean (174 languages) (number disputed; Lyle Campbell includes only 27)
  10. Austro-Asiatic (169 languages)
  11. Sepik-Ramu (100 languages) (validity disputed)
  12. Tai-Kadai (76 languages)
  13. Tupi (76 languages)
  14. Dravidian (73 languages)
  15. Mayan (69 languages)

العائلات اللغوية

فيما يلي, each "bulleted" item is a known or suspected language family. The geographic headings over them are meant solely as a tool for grouping families into collections more comprehensible than an unstructured list of the dozen or two of independent families. Geographic relationship is convenient for that purpose, but these headings are not a suggestion of any "super-families" phylogenetically relating the families named.

أفريقيا وجنوب غرب آسيا

African languages.png
  1. اللغات الأفرو-آسيوية (سابقاً الحامية-السامية)
  2. لغات النيجر-كونغو (أحياناً النيجر كردفانية)
  3. اللغات النيلو صحراوية
  4. لغات خوئه (جزء من اقتراح خويسان )
  5. لغات توؤو (جزء من خويسان)
  6. Juu-ǂHoan languages (جزء من خويسان)

اوروبا وشمال وغرب وجنوب آسيا

  1. اللغات الهندو-اوروبية
  2. اللغات التيرسنية
  3. اللغات الدراڤيدية
  4. لغات شمال غرب القوقاز (كثيراً ما تـُدمـَج مع شمال القوقاز)
  5. لغات شمال شرق القوقاز (كثيراً ما تـُدمـَج مع شمال القوقاز)
  6. Hurro-Urartian languages (extinct, perhaps related to Northeast Caucasian)
  7. لغات جنوب القوقاز
  8. اللغات التوركية
  9. اللغات المنغولية
  10. Tungusic languages
  11. اللغات الاورالية
  12. Yukaghir languages
  13. Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages
  14. Dené-Yeniseian languages

شرق وجنوب شرق آسيا والمحيط الهادي

  1. Andamanese languages (perhaps two families)
  2. Austro-Asiatic languages
  3. Austronesian languages
  4. Hmong-Mien languages
  5. Japonic languages
  6. Sino-Tibetan languages
  7. Tai-Kadai languages

غينيا الجديدة والجزر المجاورة

المقالة الرئيسية: اللغات الپاپوائية
  1. Baining languages
  2. Border languages
  3. Central Solomons languages
  4. East Bird's Head-Sentani languages
  5. Eastern Trans-Fly languages (one in Australia)
  6. East Geelvink Bay languages
  7. Kazukuru languages
  8. Lakes Plain languages (upper Mamberamo River)
  9. Left May-Kwomtari languages
  10. Mairasi languages
  11. Nimboran languages
  12. North Bougainville languages
  13. Piawi languages
  14. Ramu-Lower Sepik languages
  15. Senagi languages
  16. Sepik languages
  17. Skou languages
  18. South Bougainville languages
  19. South-Central Papuan languages
  20. Tor-Kwerba languages
  21. Torricelli languages
  22. West New Britain languages
  23. West Papuan languages
  24. Yuat languages

أستراليا

  1. Bunaban languages
  2. Daly languages
  3. Limilngan languages
  4. Djeragan languages
  5. Nyulnyulan languages
  6. Wororan languages
  7. Mindi languages
  8. Arnhem Land languages (3 families and 2 isolates)
  9. Gunwinyguan languages
  10. Pama-Nyungan languages

أمريكا الشمالية

Distribution of language families and isolates north of Mexico at first contact.
  1. Algic languages (incl. Algonquian languages) (29)
  2. Alsean languages (2)
  3. Caddoan languages (5)
  4. Chimakuan languages (2)
  5. Chinookan languages (3)
  6. Chumashan languages (6)
  7. Comecrudan languages (3)
  8. Coosan languages (2)
  9. Dené-Yeniseian languages (40 in North America, 1 in Asia)
  10. Eskimo-Aleut languages (7)
  11. Guaicuruan languages (a.k.a. Waikurian) (8)
  12. Iroquoian languages (11)
  13. Kalapuyan languages (3)
  14. Kiowa-Tanoan languages (7)
  15. Maiduan languages (4)
  16. Mayan languages (North & Central America) (31)
  17. Mixe-Zoquean languages (North America) (19)
  18. Muskogean languages (6)
  19. Oto-Manguean languages (North & Central America) (27)
  20. Palaihnihan languages (2)
  21. Plateau Penutian languages (a.k.a. Shahapwailutan) (4)
  22. Pomoan languages (7)
  23. Salishan languages (23)
  24. Shastan languages (4)
  25. Siouan languages (16)
  26. Tequistlatecan languages (3)
  27. Totonacan languages (2)
  28. Tsimshian languages (2)
  29. Utian languages (12)
  30. Uto-Aztecan languages (31)
  31. Wakashan languages (6)
  32. Wintuan languages (4)
  33. Yokutsan languages (3)
  34. Yukian languages (2)
  35. Yuman-Cochimí languages (11)

أمريكا الوسطى و أمريكا الجنوبية

  1. Alacalufan languages (South America) (2)
  2. Algic languages (North & Central America) (29)
  3. Arauan languages (South America) (8)
  4. Araucanian languages (South America) (2)
  5. Arawakan languages (South America & Caribbean) (73)
  6. Arutani-Sape languages (South America) (2)
  7. Aymaran languages (South America) (3)
  8. Barbacoan languages (South America) (7)
  9. Cahuapanan languages (South America) (2)
  10. Carib languages (South America) (29)
  11. Chapacura-Wanham languages (South America) (5)
  12. Chibchan languages (Central & South America) (22)
  13. Choco languages (South America) (10)
  14. Chon languages (South America) (2)
  15. Comecrudan languages (North & Central America) (3)
  16. Guaicuruan languages (a.k.a. Waikurian) (8)
  17. Harakmbet languages (South America) (2)
  18. Ge languages (South America) (13)
  19. Jicaquean languages (Central America)
  20. Jivaroan languages (South America) (4)
  21. Katukinan languages (South America) (3)
  22. Lencan languages (Central America)
  23. Lule-Vilela languages (South America) (1)
  24. Macro-Ge languages (South America) (32)
  25. Maku languages (South America) (6)
  26. Mascoian languages (South America) (5)
  27. Mashakalian languages (South America)
  28. Mataco-Guaicuru languages (South America) (11)
  29. Mayan languages (North & Central America) (31)
  30. Misumalpan languages (Central America) (9)
  31. Mosetenan languages (South America) (1)
  32. Mura languages (South America) (1)
  33. Nambiquaran languages (South America) (5)
  34. Oto-Manguean languages (North & Central America) (27)
  35. Paezan languages (South America) (1)
  36. Panoan languages (South America) (30)
  37. Peba-Yaguan languages (South America) (2)
  38. Quechuan languages (South America) (46)
  39. Salivan languages (South America) (2)
  40. Tacanan languages (South America) (6)
  41. Tequistlatecan languages (Central America) (3)
  42. Tucanoan languages (South America) (25)
  43. Tupi languages (South America) (70)
  44. Uru-Chipaya languages (South America) (2)
  45. Uto-Aztecan languages (North & Central America) (31)
  46. Witotoan languages (South America) (6)
  47. Xincan languages (Central America)
  48. Yanomam languages (South America) (4)
  49. Yuman-Cochimi languages (North & Central America) (11)
  50. Zamucoan languages (South America) (2)
  51. Zaparoan languages (South America) (7)

اللغات المنعزلة

أمريكا الوسطى والجنوبية

  1. Aikaná (Brazil: Rondônia)
  2. Andoque (Colombia, Peru)
  3. Aymara (Peru, Bolivia)
  4. Betoi (Colombia)
  5. Camsá (Colombia)
  6. Canichana (Bolivia)
  7. Cayubaba (Bolivia)
  8. Cofán (Colombia, Ecuador)
  9. Huaorani (a.k.a. Sabela, Waorani, Waodani) (Ecuador, Peru)
  10. Irantxe (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  11. Itonama (Bolivia)
  12. Jotí (Venezuela)
  13. Koayá (Brazil: Rondônia)
  14. Mapudungun (Chile, Argentina)
  15. Movima (Bolivia)
  16. Munichi (Peru)
  17. Nambiquaran (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  18. Omurano (Peru)
  19. Otí (Brazil: São Paulo) [extinct]
  20. Pankararú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  21. Puelche (Argentina,Chile)
  22. Puinave (Colombia)
  23. Puquina (Bolivia) [extinct]
  24. Quechua (Peru)
  25. Taushiro (Peru)
  26. Tequiraca (Peru)
  27. Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brazil)
  28. Warao (Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela)
  29. Yámana (a.k.a Yagan) (Chile)
  30. Yuracare (Bolivia)
  31. Yuri (Colombia, Brazil)
  32. Yurumanguí (Colombia)

أمريكا الشمالية

  1. Chimariko (US: California)
  2. Chitimacha (US: Louisiana)
  3. Coahuilteco (US: Texas, northeast Mexico)
  4. Cuitlatec (Mexico: Guerrero) [extinct]
  5. Esselen (US: California)
  6. Haida (Canada: British Columbia; US: Alaska)
  7. Huave (Mexico: Oaxaca)
  8. Karankawa (US: Texas) [extinct]
  9. Karok (a.k.a. Karuk) (US: California)
  10. Keres (US: New Mexico)
  11. Kootenai (Canada: British Columbia; US: Idaho, Montana)
  12. Natchez (US: Mississippi, Louisiana) (sometimes linked to Muskogean)
  13. P'urhépecha (a.k.a. Tarascan) (Mexico: Michoacán)
  14. Salinan (US: California)
  15. Seri (Mexico: Sonora)
  16. Siuslaw (US: Oregon)
  17. Takelma (US: Oregon)
  18. Timucua (US: Florida, Georgia)
  19. Tonkawa (US: Texas) [extinct]
  20. Tunica (US: Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas)
  21. Washo (US: California, Nevada)
  22. Yana (US: California)
  23. Yuchi (US: Georgia, Oklahoma)
  24. Zuni (a.k.a. Shiwi) (US: New Mexico)

أستراليا

  1. Enindhilyagwa (AKA Andilyaugwa, Anindilyakwa)
  2. Laragiya
  3. Minkin [extinct; perhaps a member of Yiwaidjan or Tankic]
  4. Ngurmbur (perhaps a member of Macro-Pama-Nyungan)
  5. Tiwi (Melville and Bathurst Islands)

غينيا الجديدة

  1. Abinomn (Baso, Foia) (north Irian)
  2. Anêm (New Britain)
  3. Ata (Pele-Ata, Wasi) (New Britain)
  4. Busa (Sandaun)
  5. Isirawa (north Irian)
  6. Kol (New Britain)
  7. Kuot (Panaras) (New Ireland)
  8. Massep
  9. Kwotari-Baibai (a.k.a. Pyu)
  10. Sulka (New Britain)
  11. Taiap (Gapun) (Sepik)
  12. Yalë (Nagatman) (Sandaun)
  13. Yawa (Geelvink Bay)
  14. Yélî Dnye (Yele) (Rennell Island)
  15. Yuri (Karkar) (Sandaun)

آسيا

  1. Ainu language or languages (Japan, Russia) (like Arabic or Japanese, the diversity within Ainu is large enough that some consider it to be perhaps up to a dozen languages while others consider it a single language with high dialectal diversity)
  2. Nivkh or Gilyak (Russia) (sometimes linked to Chukchi-Kamchatkan)
  3. Korean (North & South Korea, China, USA) (sometimes linked to Altaic; its dialect Jeju is often considered a different language)
  4. Kusunda (Nepal)
  5. Kalto or Nihali (India) (sometimes linked to Munda)
  6. Burushaski (Pakistan, India) (sometimes linked to Yeniseian)
  7. Elamite (Iran) [extinct] (sometimes linked to Dravidian)
  8. Sumerian (Iraq) [extinct]
  9. Hattic (Turkey) [extinct] (sometimes linked to Northwest Caucasian)
  10. Shompen (Nicobar Island) (little known; appears to be two languages)

أفريقيا

  1. Hadza (Tanzania)
  2. Sandawe (Tanzania) (may be related to Khoe)

اوروبا

  1. Basque (Spain, France) (related to extinct Aquitanian)

لغات غير مصنفة

Languages are considered unclassified either because, for one reason or another, little effort has been made to compare them with other languages, or, more commonly, because they are too poorly documented to permit reliable classification. Most such languages are extinct and most likely will never be known well enough to classify.

اوروبا

  1. Iberian (Spain) [extinct]
  2. Tartessian (Spain, Portugal) [extinct]

أفريقيا

  1. Shabo
  2. Meroitic [extinct]

آسيا

  1. Quti [extinct]
  2. Kaskian [extinct]
  3. Cimmerian [extinct]

أستراليا

  1. Tasmanian languages [extinct]

South America

  1. Baenan (Brazil) [extinct]
  2. Culle (Peru) [extinct]
  3. Cunza (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina) [extinct]
  4. Gamela (Brazil: Maranhão) [extinct]
  5. Gorgotoqui (Bolivia) [extinct]
  6. Huamoé (Brazil: Pernambuco) [extinct]
  7. Kukurá (Brazil: Mato Grosso) [extinct]
  8. Natú (Brazil: Pernambuco) [extinct]
  9. Tarairiú (Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte)
  10. Tuxá (Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco) [extinct]
  11. Xokó (Brazil: Alagoas, Pernambuco) [extinct]
  12. Xukurú (Brazil: Pernambuco, Paraíba) [extinct]
  13. Yurumanguí (Colombia) [extinct]

أمريكا الشمالية

  1. Adai (US: Louisiana, Texas) [extinct]
  2. Alagüilac (Guatemala)
  3. Aranama-Tamique (US: Texas) [extinct]
  4. Atakapa (US: Louisiana, Texas) [extinct]
  5. Beothuk (Canada: Newfoundland) [extinct]
  6. Calusa (US: Florida) [extinct]
  7. Cayuse (US: Oregon, Washington) [extinct]
  8. Cotoname (northeast Mexico; US: Texas) [extinct]
  9. Maratino (northeastern Mexico) [extinct]
  10. Naolan (Mexico: Tamaulipas) [extinct]
  11. Quinigua (northeast Mexico) [extinct]
  12. Solano (northeast Mexico; US: Texas) [extinct]

اللغات المختلطة

المقالة الرئيسية: اللغات المختلطة
  • Michif, a mixture of French and Cree, where the nouns and adjectives tend to be French (including agreement), and the polysynthetic verbs are entirely Cree. There are two simultaneous gender systems, French masculine/feminine as well as Cree animate/inanimate, and the Cree obviative (fourth person).
  • Mednyj Aleut, a mixture of Russian and Aleut, which retains Aleut verbs but has replaced most of the inflectional endings with their Russian equivalents.
  • Cappadocian Greek, comprising mostly Greek root words, but with many Turkish grammatical endings and Turkish vowel harmony, and no gender.
  • Mbugu or Ma’a: an inherited Cushitic vocabulary with a borrowed Bantu inflectional system.
  • Filipino, primarily Tagalog with notable influences of Spanish.

Possible examples include:

لغات الإشارة

انظر أيضاً: List of sign languages

The family relationships of sign languages are not well established, and many are isolates.

Proposed language stocks

انظر أيضاً

وصلات خارجية

الكتب

  • Boas, Franz. (1911). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 1). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1922). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 2). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1933). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 3). Native American legal materials collection, title 1227. Glückstadt: J.J. Augustin.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1999). Native languages and language families of North America (rev. and enlarged ed. with additions and corrections). [Map]. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press (Smithsonian Institute). (Updated version of the map in Goddard 1996). ISBN 0-8032-9271-6.
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1966). The Languages of Africa (2nd ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Ross, Malcom. (2005). Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages. In: Andrew Pawley, Robert Attenborough, Robin Hide and Jack Golson, eds, Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples [2]
  • Ruhlen, Merritt. (1987). A guide to the world's languages. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
  • Voegelin, C. F.; & Voegelin, F. M. (1977). Classification and index of the world's languages. New York: Elsevier.