زڤياد گامساخورديا

زڤياد گامساخورديا
President zviad gamsakhurdia 350.jpg
Georgia COA 1918-1921.jpg
رئيس جورجيا الأول
في المنصب
14 أبريل 1991 – 6 يناير 1992
سبقه العهد السوڤيتي
خلفه إدوارد شڤردنادزه
رئيس المجلس الأعلى لجورجيا
في المنصب
14 نوفمبر 1990 – 14 أبريل 1991
خلفه هو نفسه كرأس للدولة؛
أكاكي أساتياني كرئيس برلمان جورجيا
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد (1939-03-31)مارس 31, 1939
تبليسي، جورجيا ج.إ.س., الاتحاد السوڤييتي
توفي ديسمبر 31, 1993(1993-12-31) (عن عمر 54 عاماً)
خيبولا، جورجيا
القومية جورجي
التوقيع توقيع "زڤياد گامساخورديا"

زڤياد كونستانتينس دزه گامساخورديا[1] (بالجورجية: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია; بالروسية: Звиад Константинович Гамсахурдия؛ عاش 31 مارس, 193931 ديسمبر, 1993) عالم ومعارض جورجي أثناء العهد السوڤيتي. أصبح أول رئيس لجورجيا بعد إستقلالها عن الإتحاد السوڤيتي، وقد اُنتخـِب ديمقراطياً. مات مقتولاً إثر إنقلاب دبرته جماعات المخدريوني وهي جماعات مسلحة تخلط الجريمة المنظمة بأهداف سياسية قومية متطرفة. الإنقلاب أتى بإدوارد شڤردنادزه إلى الحكم، الذي بدوره أطاحت به عصابات المخدريوني لاحقاً لتأتي بالرئيس ميخئيل سآكاشڤيلي.

نضاله من أجل حقوق الإنسان

شوتا روستاڤلي. كان گامساخورديا أبرز أتباع الروستاڤية في وقته.

في 1972، أثناء حملة ضد الفساد، اشتهر گامساخورديا حين قابل، كشاب متدين، داڤيد دڤدارياني، الكاثوليكوس الجديد لكنيسة جورجيا الأرثوذكسية. وكان أحد مؤسسي مجموعة مبادرة حقوق الإنسان في 1973، ثم أصبح أول عضو جورجي في منظمة العفو الدولية في 1974. وأسس مجموعة هلسنكي الجورجية في 1976.

ومثل أبيه، كونستانتين گامساخورديا، فقد اتخذ مساراً أكاديمياً، فأصبح باحثاً في معهد الأدب الجورجي، ضمن أكاديمية العلوم الجورجية (1985-1990)، وقبل ذلك كان أستاذاً مرافقاً في جامعة تبليسي الحكومية (1973-1975)



تحركاته نحو الاستقلال

إيليا چڤچڤدزه، الشهير ب"إليا الصالح"، كان ملهم گامساخورديا.
زعماء حركة الاستقلال الجورجية في أواخر الثمانينات، زڤياد گامساخورديا (يسار) ومراب كوستاڤا (يمين)

بعد تطبيق سياسة گلاسنوست على يد الزعيم السوڤيتي ميخائيل گورباتشوڤ، لعب گامساخورديا دوراً محورياً في تنظيم مظاهرات حاشدة للمطالبة باستقلال جورجيا بين 1987 و 1990، بالاشتراك مع مراب كوستاڤا الذي أُطلِق سراحه في 1987. وفي 1988، أصبح گامساخورديا أحد مؤسسي "جمعية القديس إيليا الصالح"، وهي المنظمة التي جمعت بين النشاط الديني والسياسي، والتي أصبحت قاعدة حركته السياسية.


گامساخورديا رئيساً

On taking office, Gamsakhurdia was faced with major economic and political difficulties, especially regarding Georgia's relations with the Soviet Union. A key problem was the position of Georgia's many ethnic minorities (making up 30% of the population). Although minority groups had participated actively in Georgia's return to democracy, they were underrepresented in the results of the October 1990 elections with only nine of 245 deputies being non-Georgians. Even before Georgia's independence, the position of national minorities was contentious and led to outbreaks of serious inter-ethnic violence in Abkhazia during 1989.

في 1989، اندلعت اضطرابات عنيفة في جنوب اوستيا، الاوبلاست الذاتي بين الشعب الجورجي الساعي للاستقلال والاوستيين الموالين للاتحاد السوڤيتي. وقد أعلن السوڤيت المحلي لجنوب اوستيا أن المنطقة سوف تنفصل عن جورجيا لتشكل "جمهورية ديمقراطية سوڤيتية". ورداً على ذلك، ألغى السوڤيت الأعلى الجورجي الحكم الذاتي لأوستيا الجنوبية في مارس 1990.[2]

A three-way power struggle between Georgian, Ossetian and Soviet military forces broke out in the region, which resulted (by March 1991) in the deaths of 51 people and the eviction from their homes of 25,000 more. After his election as Chairman of the newly renamed Supreme Council, Gamsakhurdia denounced the Ossetian move as being part of a Russian ploy to undermine Georgia, declaring the Ossetian separatists to be "direct agents of the Kremlin, its tools and terrorists." In February 1991, he sent a letter to Mikhail Gorbachev demanding the withdrawal of Soviet army units and an additional contingent of interior troops of the USSR from the territory of former Authonomous District of South Ossetia.

حسب جورج خوتسي‌شڤيلي، الشعار الوطني "جورجيا للجورجيين" الذي أطلقه أتباع گامساخورديا "لعب دوراً حاسماً" في "اشعال عنف عرقي مشابه لما حدث في البوسنة."[3]

الانقلاب

تنگيز كيتوڤاني كان أحد زعماء عصابات المخدريوني المعارضة لگامساخورديا في 1991.

في 22 ديسمبر 1991، قامت جماعات المخدريوني بانقلاب عنيف and attacked a number of official buildings including the Georgian parliament building, where Gamsakhurdia himself was sheltering. Heavy fighting continued in Tbilisi until January 6, 1992, leaving at least 113 people dead. On January 6, Gamsakhurdia and members of his government escaped through opposition lines and made their way to Azerbaijan where they were denied asylum. Armenia finally hosted Gamsakhurdia for a short period and rejected Georgian demand to extradite Gamsakhurdia back to Georgia. In order not to complicate tense relations with Georgia, Armenian authorities allowed Gamsakhurdia to move to the breakaway Russian republic of چچنيا، where he was granted asylum by the rebellious government of General جوهر دودايڤ.

It was later claimed that Russian forces had been involved in the coup against Gamsakhurdia. On December 15, 1992 the Russian newspaper Moskovskiye Novosti printed a letter claiming that the former Vice-Commander of the Transcaucasian Military District, Colonel General Sufian Bepaev, had sent a "subdivision" to assist the armed opposition. If the intervention had not taken place, it was claimed, "Gamsakhurdia's supporters' victory would be guaranteed." It was also claimed that Soviet special forces had helped the opposition to attack the state television tower on December 28.

A Military Council made up of Gamsakhurdia opponents took over the government on an interim basis. One of its first actions was to formally depose Gamsakhurdia as President. It reconstituted itself as a State Council and appointed Gamsakhurdia's old rival Eduard Shevardnadze as chairman in March 1992. The change in power was effected as a fait accompli, without any formal referendum or elections. He ruled as de facto president until the formal restoration of the presidency in November 1995.


الحرب الأهلية 1993

گامساخورديا مع ميليشياته في اوچامچيره، أثناء النزاع الجورجي الأبخازي.

Gamsakhurdia soon took up the apparent opportunity to bring down Shevardnadze. He returned to Georgia on September 24, 1993, establishing what amounted to a "government in exile" in the western Georgian city of Zugdidi. He announced that he would continue "the peaceful struggle against an illegal military junta" and concentrated on building an anti-Shevardnadze coalition drawing on the support of the regions of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Abkhazia. He also built up a substantial military force that was able to operate relatively freely in the face of the weak state security forces. After initially demanding immediate elections, Gamsakhurdia took advantage of the Georgian army's rout to seize large quantities of weapons abandoned by the retreating government forces. A civil war engulfed western Georgia in October 1993 as Gamsakhurdia's forces succeeded in capturing several key towns and transport hubs. Government forces fell back in disarray, leaving few obstacles between Gamsakhurdia's forces and Tbilisi.

However, Gamsakhurdia's capture of the economically vital Georgian Black Sea port of Poti threatened the interests of Russia, Armenia (totally landlocked and dependent on Georgia's ports) and Azerbaijan. In an apparent and very controversial quid pro quo, all three countries expressed their support for Shevardnadze's government, which in turn agreed to join the Commonwealth of Independent States. While the support from Armenia and Azerbaijan was purely political, Russia quickly mobilized troops to aid the Georgian government. On October 20, around 2,000 Russian troops moved to protect Georgian railroads and provided logistical support and weapons to the poorly armed government forces. The uprising quickly collapsed and Zugdidi fell on November 6.

مقتل گامساخورديا

شاهد قبر الرئيس گامساخورديا في تبليسي.

On December 31, 1993, Zviad Gamsakhurdia died in circumstances that are still unclear. It is known that he died in the village of خيبولا in the Samegrelo region of western Georgia and later was re-buried in the village Jikhashkari (in the Samegrelo region also). According to British press reports, the body was found with a single bullet wound to the head. A variety of reasons have been given for his death, which is still controversial and remains unresolved:

بعض الأعمال الهامة لزڤياد گامساخورديا

  • "20th century American Poetry" (a monograph). Publishing House "Ganatleba", Tbilisi, 1972, 150 pp. (In Georgian, English summary).
  • The Man in the Panther's Skin" in English" (a monograph). Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1984, 222 pp. (In Georgian, English summary).
  • "Goethe's Weltanschauung from the Anthroposophic point of view."- J. "Tsiskari", Tbilisi, No 5, 1985 (In Georgian).
  • "Tropology (Image Language) of "The Man in the Panther's Skin"" (a monograph). Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1991, 354 pp. (In Georgian, English summary).
  • "Collected articles and Essays". Publishing House "Khelovneba", Tbilisi, 1991, 574 pp. (In Georgian).
  • "The Spiritual mission of Georgia" (1990)
  • "The Spiritual Ideals of the Gelati Academy" (1989)
  • "Dilemma for Humanity."- "Nezavisimaia Gazeta", Moscow, May 21, 1992 (In Russian).
  • "Between deserts" (about the creative works of L.N. Tolstoy).- "Literaturnaia Gazeta", Moscow, No 15, 1993 (In Russian).
  • "Fables and Tales". Publishing House "Nakaduli", Tbilisi, 1987 (In Georgian).
  • "The Betrothal of the Moon" (Poems). Publishing House "Merani", Tbilisi, 1989 (In Georgian).

المصادر

  1. ^ خصوصاً في مصادر العهد السوڤيتي، الاسم الأبوي له يـُذكر على أنه Konstantinovich في الروسية style.
  2. ^ Hastening The End of the Empire, Time Magazine, January 28, 1991
  3. ^ Intervention in Transcaucasus, George Khutsishvili, Perspective, Volume IV, No 3 (February–March 1994) جامعة بوسطن

وصلات وأعمال أدبية

مقالات في الإعلام ومراجع

  • "Soviets Release Penitent Dissident" — The Washington Post, June 30, 1979
  • "New Leaders Show Their Old Habits; Georgia, Some Other Soviet Republics Cling to Authoritarian Ways" — The Washington Post, September 18, 1991
  • (بالروسية) "Russki Curier", Paris, September, 1991.
  • (فنلندية) Aila Niinimaa-Keppo. "Shevardnadzen valhe" ("The Lie of Shevardnadze"), Helsinki, 1992.
  • (بالألمانية) Johan Michael Ginther, "About the Putch in Georgia" — Der Presse Spiegel (Germany), No 14, 1992.
  • "Repression Follows Putsch in Georgia!" — "Human Rights Worldwide", Frankfurt/M., No 2 (Vol. 2), 1992.
  • (فنلندية) "Purges, tortures, arson, murders..." — Iltalehti (Finland), April 2, 1992.
  • (فنلندية) "Entinen Neuvostoliito". Edited by Antero Leitzinger. Publishing House "Painosampo", Helsinki, 1992, pp. 114-115. ISBN 952-9752-00-8.
  • "Attempted Coup Blitzed in Georgia; Two Killed" — Chicago Sun-Times, June 25, 1992.
  • "Moskovskie Novosti" ("The Moscow News"), December 15, 1992.
  • قالب:Ka icon "Iberia-Spektri", Tbilisi, December 15-21, 1992.
  • J. "Soviet Analyst". Vol. 21, No: 9-10, London, 1993, pp. 15-31.
  • Otto von Habsburg.- ABC (Spain). November 24, 1993.
  • Robert W. Lee. "Dubious Reforms in Former USSR".- The New American, Vol. 9, No 2, 1993.
  • (إنگليزية)/قالب:Ka icon "Gushagi" (Journal of Georgian political emigrés), Paris, No 1/31, 1994. قالب:Listed Invalid ISSN, OCLC 54453360.
  • Mark Almond. "The West Underwrites Russian Imperialism" — The Wall Street Journal, European Edition, February 7, 1994.
  • "Schwer verletzte Menschenrechte in Georgien" — Neue Zürcher Zeitung. August 19, 1994.
  • "Intrigue Marks Alleged Death Of Georgia's Deposed Leader" — The Wall Street Journal. January 6, 1994
  • "Georgians dispute reports of rebel leader's suicide" — The Guardian (UK). January 6, 1994
  • "Ousted Georgia Leader a Suicide, His Wife Says" — Los Angeles Times. January 6, 1994
  • "Eyewitness: Gamsakhurdia's body tells of bitter end" — The Guardian (UK). February 18, 1994.
  • (بالألمانية) Konstantin Gamsachurdia: "Swiad Gamsachurdia: Dissident — Präsident — Märtyrer", Perseus-Verlag, Basel, 1995, 150 pp. ISBN 3-907564-19-7.
  • Robert W. Lee. "The "Former" Soviet Bloc." — The New American, Vol. 11, No 19, 1995.
  • "CAUCASUS and unholy alliance." Edited by Antero Leitzinger. ISBN 952-9752-16-4. Publishing House "Kirja-Leitzinger" (Leitzinger Books), Vantaa (Finland), 1997, 348 pp.
  • (هولندية) "GEORGIE — 1997" (Report of the Netherlands Helsinki Union/NHU), s-Hertogenbosch (The Netherlands), 1997, 64 pp.
  • "Insider Report" — The New American, Vol. 13, No 4, 1997.
  • Levan Urushadze. "The role of Russia in the Ethnic Conflicts in the Caucasus."- CAUCASUS: War and Peace. Edited by Mehmet Tutuncu, Haarlem (The Netherlands), 1998, 224 pp. ISBN 90-901112-5-5.
  • "Insider Report" — The New American, Vol. 15, No 20, 1999.
  • "Gushagi", Paris, No 2/32, 1999. OCLC 54453360.
  • (هولندية) Bas van der Plas. "GEORGIE: Traditie en tragedie in de Kaukasus." Publishing House "Papieren Tijger", Nijmegen (The Netherlands), 2000, 114 pp. ISBN 90-6728-114-X.
  • (إنگليزية) Levan Urushadze. "About the history of Russian policy in the Caucasus."- IACERHRG's Yearbook — 2000, Tbilisi, 2001, pp. 64-73.
سبقه
العهد السوڤيتي
رئيس جورجيا
1991-1992
تبعه
إدوارد شيڤاردنادزه