البرنامج الفضائي الصيني

(تم التحويل من برنامج الفضاء الصيني)
Launch of the Chang'e 1 lunar exploration satellite

بدأ برنامج الفضاء الصيني ، فور تأسيس جمهورية الصين الشعبية. ويشمل هذا البرنامج الأنظمة المضادة للصواريخ الباليستية ، التسليح مضاد للسواتل ، الأقمار الصناعية الخاصة بالاستطلاع والاستخبارات ، مركبات الفضاء المأهولة ، معامل الفضاء ،محطات الفضاء ومركبات فضاء، والتي تقدمت كثيرا بعد نهاية الحرب الباردة مع خطط لإنشاء قواعد على القور واستكشاف الكواكب خارج المجموعة الشمسية.

التاريخ والتطورات الأخيرة

فترة الصداقة خلال المعاهدة الصينية السوڤتية

بعد الانقسام الصيني السوڤتي

بعد موت ماو زدنگ

بعد نهاية الحرب الباردة

التكنولوجيات ذات الإستخدام المزدوج والفضاء الخارجي

التنظيم

الجامعات والمؤسسات

مواقع الفضاء

  • Dongfeng space city (东风航天城),also known as Base 20(二十基地)or Dongfeng base(东风基地)[1]

مواقع اطلاق مدارية

  • Nanhui (南汇县老港镇东进村)First successful launch of a T-7M sounding rocket on February 19, 1960. [5]
  • Base 603 (安徽广德誓节渡中国科学院六○三基地)Also known as Guangde Launch Site(广德发射场). [6] The first successful flight of a biological experimental T-7A(S1) sounding rocket transporting eight white mice was launched and recovered on July 19, 1964. [7]

مراكز إطلاق سواتل

تدير الصين أربع مراكز لإطلاق السواتل:

مراكز رصد ومراقبة

محطات تتبع محلية
  • New integrated land-based space monitoring and control network stations, forming a large triangle with Kashi in the north-west of China, Jiamusi in the north-east and Sanya in the south. [12]
  • Weinan Station
  • Changchun Station
  • Qingdao Station
  • Zhanyi Station
  • Nanhai Station
  • Tianshan Station
  • Xiamen Station
  • Lushan Station
  • Jiamusi Station
  • Dongfeng Station
  • Hetian Station
محطات التتبع وراء البحار
  • محطة كاراتشي
  • Tarawa Station
  • Malindi Station
  • Swakopmund Station

Plus shared space tracking facilities with France, Brazil, Sweden and Australia.

مواقع هبوط مركبات الفضاء المأهولة

برامج مركبات الفضاء المأهولة

مشروع 714

المقالة الرئيسية: مشروع 714

مشروع 863

مشروع 921

كبسولة فضاء

المقالة الرئيسية: برنامج شن‌ژوو شن‌ژو 5

معمل فضاء

المقالة الرئيسية: مشروع 921-2

محطة فضاء

Shenzhou 5 re-entry module

الهبوط على سطح القمر

بعثة المريخ وما ورائها

الأهدف

أهداف إدارة البرنامج الفضائي الصيني:

  • build a long term earth observation system
  • set up an independent satellite telecommunications network
  • establish an independent satellite navigation and positioning system
  • provide commercial launch services
  • set up a remote sensing system
  • study space science such as microgravity, space materials, life sciences, and astronomy
  • plan for exploration of the moon

Among their stated longer term goals are:

  • improve their standing in the world of space science
  • establish a manned space station
  • manned missions to the moon
  • establish a manned lunar base

قائمة المشروعات

السواتل والعلوم

  • Deep Space Tracking Network with the completion of the FAST, the world largest single dish radio antenna of 500 m in Guizhou, and a 3000 km VLBI radio antenna [18]

مراكز إطلاق السواتل

  • Hainan Spaceport Fourth and southernmost space center, will be upgraded to suit the new CZ-5 Heavy ELV and manned lunar missions

إطلاق المركبات

  • Air-Launched SLV Able to place a 50 kilogram plus payload to 500 km SSO [19]
  • Kaituozhe-1 (开拓者一号), KT-1A (开拓者一号甲), KT-2 (开拓者二号) , KT-2A (开拓者一二甲) New class of all-solid orbital launch vehicles
  • Kaituozhe-1B (开拓者一号乙) With addition of two solid boosters[20]
  • CZ-1D Based on a CZ-1, but with a new N2O4/UDMH second stage
  • CZ-2E(A) Intended for launch of Chinese space station modules. Payload capacity up to 14 tons in LEO, 9000 (kN) liftoff thrust developed by 12 rocket engines, with enlarged fairing of 5.20 m in diameter and length of 12.39 m to accommodate large spacecraft [21]
  • CZ-2F/G Modified CZ-2F without escape tower specially used for launching unmanned mission such as Shenzhou cargo and space laboratory module, with payload capacity up to 11.2 tons in LEO [22]
  • CZ-3B(A) More powerful Long March rockets using larger-size liquid propellant strap-on motors, with payload capacity up to 13 tons in LEO
  • CZ-3C Launch vehicle combining CZ-3B core with two boosters from CZ-2E
  • Chang Zheng 5 Second generation ELV with more efficient and non toxic propellents (25 tonnes in LEO)
  • Chang Zheng 6 or SLV Small Launch Vehicle, with short launch preparation period, low cost and high reliability, to meet the launch need of small satellites up to 500 kg to 700 km SSO, first flight for 2010; with Fan Ruixiang (范瑞祥) as Chief designer of the project [23][24][25]
  • Chang Zheng 7 Used for Phase 4 of Lunar Exploration Program (嫦娥-4 工程), that is permanent base (月面驻留), expected for 2024; Second generation Heavy ELV for lunar and deep space trajectory injection (70 tonnes in LEO), capable of supporting a Soviet L1/L3-like lunar landing mission [26]
  • Project 921-3 Space Shuttle — Second generation manned spacecraft Shenlong Spaceplane
  • HTS Maglev Launch Assist Space Shuttle New second generation manned reusable spacecraft
  • Moon rocket Able to launch a 50 tons payload in LTO, in the Soviet UR-700M-class, development discussed in a 2006 conference by academician Zhang Guitian [27] [28] [29]

استكشاف الفضاء

Insignia of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP)
  • Project 921-1Shenzhou spacecraft
  • Project 921-2 — Chinese Space Laboratory and Chinese Permanent Space Station short term and then permanent occupation [30][31]
  • Shenzhou Cargo (货运飞船)— unmanned version of the Shenzhou spacecraft to resupply the Chinese Permanent Space Station
  • Chinese Lunar Exploration Program
    • First phase lunar program (嫦娥-1 工程) — launched in 2007 with CZ-3A: two unmanned lunar orbital probes
    • Second phase lunar program (嫦娥-2 工程)— to be launched in 2012 with CZ-5/E:first Moon landing of a couple of rovers
    • Third phase lunar program (嫦娥-3 工程) — to be launched in 2017 with CZ-5/E: automated Moon landing and return sample
    • Fourth phase lunar program (嫦娥-4 工程) — to be launched in 2024 with CZ-7: manned mission and permanent bases (月面驻留)[32]
  • Chinese Mars exploration programYinghuo-1 orbiter scheduled for launch in October 2009 in the joint Phobos-Grunt mission with Russia. Further planned missions include rover landers and possible manned missions in the far future. Anatoly Perminov, head of the Russian Space Agency has revealed in September 2006 in RIA Novosti that China was about to sign a contract by the end of 2006 to participate in a Russian project to bring soil back to Earth from Phobos, one of Mars two moons.[33] The mission will also collect samples on Mars, according to Xinhua.[34]
  • Deep space exploration — spacefaring through the entire Solar system

البحث

انظر أيضا

المصادر

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  14. ^ "我国现役和研制中的卫星与飞船谱系图:上排右一会不会是TL-2 ?". 虚幻天空. 2008-06-08. Retrieved June 8.  Unknown parameter |accessyear= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
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وصلات خارجية

الأخبار