إمبراطور روماني مقدس

Emperor
the Holy Roman Empire
امبراطوري
Shield and Coat of Arms of the Holy Roman Emperor (c.1200-c.1300).svg
Reichsadler (Imperial Eagle) used by the emperors
of the high medieval period
Holy Roman Empire Arms-double head.svg
Double-headed Reichsadler used by the Habsburg emperors of the early modern period
التفاصيل
الأسلوب His Imperial Majesty
أول عاهل Charlemagne
آخر عاهل Francis II
التكوّن 25 December 800
الإلغاء 6 August 1806
المعيـِّن see Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor
المطالب Position abolished

الامبراطور الروماني المقدس ( الالمانيه :Römischer Kaiser واللاتينية : Romanorum Imperator) كان العاهل المنتخب حاكم الامبراطوريه الرومانيه المقدسة ، وأوروبا الوسطى في خلال العصور الوسطى واوائل الفترة الحديثة.

حسب الاتفاق أول إمبراطور روماني مقدس كان ملك الفرنجة الملك شارلمان ، توج كامبراطور الغرب من البابا ليو الثالث في 25 كانون الاول / ديسمبر 800 ، رغم ان الامبراطوريه نفسها (وكذلك اسلوب الامبراطور الروماني المقدس) لم يدخل حيز الاستخدام حتى بعض وبعد فترة زمنيه. توج باباوات روما اباطره الامبراطوريه الرومانيه المقدسة حتى القرن السادس عشر ، وتنازل الامبراطور الاخير ، فرانسيس الثاني ، في 1806 اثناء حروب نابليون التي شهدت حل الامبراطوريه النهائي.

اللقب

ملف:Wapen 1545 Kaiserwappen des Heiligen Römischen Reichs Polychromie.jpg
Coats of arms of prince electors surround the Holy Roman Emperor's; from flags book of Jacob Köbel (1545). Electors voted in an Imperial Diet for a new Holy Roman Emperor.
للمزيد من المعلومات: Emperor

From the time of Constantine I (4th century) the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity. The title of Emperor became defunct in Western Europe after the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in AD 476, although the rulers of the "barbarian kingdoms" continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century; both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire until 1453, when it fell to the forces of the Ottoman Empire.


تعاقب الأباطرة الرومان المقدسين

ملف:Dinasty Habsburg (HRR) family tree by shakko (DE).jpg
Holy Roman Emperors of Habsburg dynasty and their families

Successions to the kingship were controlled by a variety of complicated factors. Elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France, although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors. Some scholars suggest that the task of the elections was really to solve conflicts only when the dynastic rule was unclear, yet the process meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on side, which were known as Wahlkapitulationen (election capitulations).


الأباطرة الرومان المقدسون

انظر أيضاً: List of German monarchs

This list includes all 47 emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, whether or not they styled themselves Holy Roman Emperor. There are some gaps in the tally. For example, Henry the Fowler was King of Germany but not Emperor; Emperor Henry II was numbered as his successor as German King. The Guideschi follow the numeration for the Duchy of Spoleto.[بحاجة لمصدر]

الأسرة الكارولنجية

Traditional historiography assumes a continuity between the Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, while a modern convention takes the coronation of Otto I in 962 as the starting point of the Holy Roman Empire (although the term Sacrum Imperium Romanum was not in use before the 13th century).

The rulers who were crowned as Emperors in the West before 962 were as follows:

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Charles I, the Great (Charlemagne)
(742–814)
25 December 800 28 January 814  • King of the Lombards
 • King of the Franks
100px Louis I, the Pious
(778–840)
11 September 813[1] 20 June 840 Son of Charles I  • King of the Franks
 • King of Aquitaine
Lothar I.jpg Lothair I
(795–855)
5 April 823 29 September 855 Son of Louis I  • King of Bavaria
 • King of Italy
 • King of Middle Francia
100px Louis II
(825–875)
29 September 855 12 August 875 Son of Lothair I  • King of Bavaria
 • King of Italy
 • King of Middle Francia
100px Charles II, the Bald
(823–877)
29 December 875 6 October 877 Son of Louis I  • King of West Francia
 • King of Italy
Die deutschen Kaiser Karl der Dicke.jpg Charles III, the Fat
(839–888)
12 February 881 13 January 888 Grandson of Louis I  • King of West Francia
 • King of East Francia
 • King of Italy

Widonid dynasty

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Guy I
(?–894)
891 12 December 894 Great-great grandson of Charles I  • King of Italy
 • Duke of Spoleto
No image.svg Lambert I
(880–898)
30 April 892 15 October 898 Son of Guy I  • King of Italy
 • Duke of Spoleto

Carolingian dynasty

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Arnulph
(850–899)
22 February 896 8 December 899 Nephew of Charles III  • King of Italy
 • King of East Francia

Bosonid dynasty

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Louis III, the Blind
(880–928)
22 February 901 21 July 905 Grandson of Louis II  • King of Italy
 • King of Provence

Unruoching dynasty

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Berengar I
(845–924)
December 915 7 April 924 Grandson of Louis I  • King of Italy
 • Margrave of Friuli

There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.

While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as western Roman Emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire is usually considered to have begun with the crowning of the Saxon king Otto I. It was officially an elective position, though at times it ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty in the 11th century. From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the Emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son. That changed with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg, as an unbroken line of Habsburgs would hold the Imperial throne until the 18th century, later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine would likewise pass it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in 1806. Notably, the Habsburgs also dispensed with the requirement that emperors be crowned by the pope before exercising their office. Starting with Ferdinand I, all successive Emperors forwent the traditional coronation.

Ottonian dynasty

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Otto I, the Great
(912–973)
2 February 962 7 May 973 Great-great-great grandson of Louis I  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
 • Duke of Saxony
100px Otto II, the Red
(955–983)
25 December 967 7 December 983 Son of Otto I  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
100px Otto III
(980–1002)
21 May 996 23 January 1002 Son of Otto II  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
100px Henry II[2]
(973–1024)
7 June 1002 14 February 1014 Second cousin of Otto III  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
 • Duke of Bavaria

Salian dynasty

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Conrad II, the Elder[3]
(990–1039)
26 March 1027 4 June 1039 Great-great-grandson of Otto I  • King of Burgundy
 • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
100px Henry III, the Black
(1017–1056)
25 December 1046 5 October 1056 Son of Conrad II  • King of Burgundy
 • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
Heinrich 4 g.jpg Henry IV
(1050–1116)
31 March 1084 7 August 1106 Son of Henry III  • King of Burgundy
 • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
100px Henry V[4]
(1086–1125)
13 April 1111 23 May 1125 Son of Henry IV  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany

Supplinburg dynasty

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px Lothair II[5]
(1075–1137)
4 June 1133 4 December 1137 Far descendant of Otto I  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany

Staufen dynasty

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px 100px Frederick I, Barbarossa
(1122–1190)
8 June 1155 10 June 1190 Great-grandson of Henry IV  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Burgundy
100px 100px Henry VI
(1165–1197)
14 April 1191 28 September 1197 Son of Frederick I  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Burgundy
 • Co-King of Sicily

Welf dynasty

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px 100px Otto IV
(1175–1218)
9 June 1198 1215 Great-grandson of Lothair II  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Burgundy

Staufen dynasty

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px 100px Frederick II
(1194–1250)
22 November 1220 13 December 1250 Son of Henry VI  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Sicily
 • King of Jerusalem
100px 100px Conrad IV
(1228–1254)
13 December 1250 21 May 1254 Son of Frederick II  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Sicily
 • King of Jerusalem
100px 100px Conrad V
(1252–1268)
21 May 1254 29 October 1268 Son of Conrad IV  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Sicily
 • King of Jerusalem

House of Luxembourg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px 100px Henry VII
(1274-1313)
29 June 1312 24 August 1313 Far descendant of Louis III  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • Count of Luxemburg

House of Wittelsbach

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
Ludwig der Bayer.jpg 100px Louis IV, the Bavarian
(1282–1347)
October 1314 11 October 1347 Far descendant of Lothair II and Henry IV  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • Duke of Bavaria

House of Luxembourg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment.jpg 100px Charles IV
(1316–1378)
11 July 1346 29 November 1378 Grandson of Henry VII  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Burgundy
 • Count of Luxemburg
Zikmund Zhořelecka radnice.jpg 100px Sigismund
(1368–1437)
10 September 1410 9 December 1437 Son of Charles IV  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia

House of Habsburg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px 100px Frederick III, the Peaceful
(1415–1493)
2 February 1440 19 August 1493 Far descendant of Lothair II  • King of Germany
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Maximilian I
(1459–1519)
19 August 1493 12 January 1519 Son of Frederick III  • King of Germany
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Charles V
(1500–1558)
28 June 1519 16 January 1556 Grandson of Maximilian I  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • Archduke of Austria
 • King of Spain
 • Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy
100px 100px Ferdinand I
(1503–1564)
16 January 1556 25 July 1564 Grandson of Maximilian I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpg 100px Maximilian II
(1527–1576)
25 July 1564 12 October 1576 Son of Ferdinand I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Rudolph II[6]
(1552–1612)
12 October 1576 20 January 1612 Son of Maximilian II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Matthias
(1557–1619)
23 January 1612 20 March 1619 Son of Maximilian II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Ferdinand II
(1578–1637)
20 March 1619 15 February 1637 Grandson of Ferdinand I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Ferdinand III
(1608–1657)
15 February 1637 2 April 1657 Son of Ferdinand II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Leopold I
(1640–1705)
6 March 1657 5 May 1705 Son of Ferdinand III  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Joseph I
(1678–1711)
5 May 1705 17 April 1711 Son of Leopold I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
Johann Gottfried Auerbach 002.JPG 100px Charles VI
(1685–1740)
12 October 1711 20 October 1740 Son of Leopold I

House of Wittelsbach

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor.PNG 100px Charles VII
(1697–1745)
12 February 1742 20 January 1745 Great-great grandson of Ferdinand II  • King of Bohemia
 • Elector of Bavaria

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
100px 100px Francis I
(1708–1765)
13 September 1745 18 August 1765 Great-grandson of Ferdinand III; Son-in-law of Charles VI  • King of Germany
 • Archduke of Austria
 • Grand Duke of Tuscany
 • Duke of Lorraine
100px 100px Joseph II
(1741–1790)
19 August 1765 20 February 1790 Son of Francis I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Leopold II
(1747–1792)
21 February 1790 1 March 1792 Son of Francis I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
 • Grand Duke of Tuscany
100px 100px Francis II
(1768–1835)
4 March 1792 6 August 1806 Son of Leopold II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria

التتويج

كان الامبراطور يُتوَّج في حفل خاص، عادةً يقوم به الپاپا في روما. Without that coronation, no king, despite exercising all powers, could call himself Emperor. In 1508, Pope Julius II allowed Maximilian I to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator ("elected Emperor of the Romans"). Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.[7] Maximilian's first successor Charles V was the last to be crowned Emperor.

الامبراطور تاريخ التتويج Officiant المكان
شارل الأول 25 ديسمبر 800 Pope Leo III روما، إيطاليا
Louis I 5 October 816 Pope Stephen IV Reims، فرنسا
Lothair I 5 April 823 Pope Paschal I روما، إيطاليا
Louis II 15 يونيو 844 Pope Leo IV روما، إيطاليا
Charles II 29 ديسمبر 875 Pope John VIII روما، إيطاليا
Charles III 12 فبراير 881 روما، إيطاليا
Guy III of Spoleto 21 فبراير 891 Pope Stephen V روما، إيطاليا
Lambert II of Spoleto 30 April 892 Pope Formosus Ravenna، إيطاليا
Arnulf of Carinthia 22 فبراير 896 روما، إيطاليا
Louis III 15 or 22 فبراير 901 Pope Benedict IV روما، إيطاليا
Berengar ديسمبر 915 Pope John X روما، إيطاليا
Otto I 2 فبراير, 962 Pope John XII روما، إيطاليا
Otto II 25 ديسمبر, 967 Pope John XIII روما، إيطاليا
Otto III 21 May, 996 Pope Gregory V Monza، إيطاليا
Henry II 14 فبراير 1014 Pope Benedict VIII روما، إيطاليا
Conrad II 26 مارس 1027 Pope John XIX روما، إيطاليا
Henry III 25 ديسمبر 1046 Pope Clement II روما، إيطاليا
Henry IV 31 مارس 1084 Antipope Clement III روما، إيطاليا
Henry V 13 April 1111 Pope Paschal II روما، إيطاليا
Lothair III 4 يونيو 1133 Pope Innocent II روما، إيطاليا
Frederick I 18 يونيو 1155 Pope Adrian IV روما، إيطاليا
Henry VI 14 April 1191 Pope Celestine III روما، إيطاليا
Otto IV 4 October 1209 Pope Innocent III روما، إيطاليا
Frederick II 22 نوفمبر 1220 Pope Honorius III روما، إيطاليا
هنري السابع 29 يونيو 1312 Ghibellines cardinals روما، إيطاليا
Louis IV 17 January 1328 Senator Sciarra Colonna روما، إيطاليا
Charles IV 5 April 1355 Pope Innocent VI's cardinal روما، إيطاليا
Sigismund 31 May 1433 Pope Eugenius IV روما، إيطاليا
Frederick III 19 مارس 1452 Pope Nicholas V روما، إيطاليا
Charles V 24 فبراير 1530 Pope Clement VII Bologna، إيطاليا

مواضيع متعلقة


مراجع

  1. ^ Egon Boshof: Ludwig der Fromme. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89
  2. ^ Enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor.
  3. ^ Enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor
  4. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30153-2. 
  5. ^ Enumerated as successor of Lothair II, who was King of Lotharingia 855–869 but not Emperor
  6. ^ Enumerated as successor of Rudolph I who was German King 1273–1291.
  7. ^ ” Wir Franz der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser Imperator Austriae, Fransiscus I (1804), Allerhöchste Pragmatikal-Verordnung vom 11. August 1804, The HR Emperor, p. 1